Section Ⅰ Vocabulary (10 points)
Directions: there are 20 incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. choose the best one to complete the sentence. Then blacken the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a pencil.
1. Oil is an important ___________material which can be processed into many different products.
A. raw B. bleak C. flexible D. fertile
2. The high living standards of the US cause its present population to__________25 percent of the world’s oil.
A. assume B. consume C. resume D. presume
3. You shouldn’t be so _____---I didn’t mean anything bad in what I said
A. sentimental B. sensible C. sensitive D. sophisticated
4. Picasso was an artist who fundamentally changed the _________of art for later generations
A. philosophy B. concept C. viewpoint D. theme
5. Member states had the option to ______from this agreement with one year’s notice
A. deny B. object C. suspect D. withdraw
6. The two countries achieved some progress in the sphere of trade relations, traditionally a source of __________irritation
A. mutual B. optional C. neutral D. parallel
7. Williams had not been there during the___moments when the kidnapping had taken place
A. superior B. rigorous C. vital D. unique
8. Travel around Japan today ，and one sees foreign residents holding a wide __of jobs
A. range B. field C. scale D. area
9. Modern manufacturing has ___ a global river of materials into a stunning array of new products
A. translated B. transformed C. transferred D. transported
10. Lightning has been the second largest storm killer in the US over the past 40 years and is ___only by flood
A. exceeded B. excelled C. excluded D. extended
11. Voices were ___as the argument between the two motorists became more bad-tempered.
A. swollen B. increased C. developed D. raised
12. Some sufferers will quickly be restored to perfect health , ___others will take a longer time.
A. which B. where C. when D. whereas
13. My brother likes eating very much but he isn’t very ___about the food he eats.
A. special B. peculiar C. particular D. unusual
14. Britain might still be part of France if it weren’t___a disastrous flood 200.000 years ago, According to scientists from Imperial College in London.
A. upon B. with C. in D. for
15. The Water Prize is an international award that___outstanding contributions towards solving global water problems.
A. recognizes B. requires C. releases D. relays
16. In its 14 years of _______ , the European Union has earned the scorn of its citizens and skepticism from the United States.
A. endurance B. emergence C. existence D. eminence
17. His excuse for being late this morning was his car had _____ in the snow.
A. started up B. got stuck C. set back D. stood by
18.______widespread belief, cockroaches (蟑螂) would not take over the world if there were no one around to step on them.
A. In view of B. Thanks to C. In case of D. Contrary to
19. Consciously or not, ordinary citizens and government bureaucrats still _____the notion that Japanese society is a unique culture.
A. fit in with B. look down on C. cling to D. hold back
20. As you can see by yourself, things _______ to be exactly as the professor had foreseen.
A. turned in B. turned out C. turned up D. turned down
Section Ⅱ Cloze (10 points)
Directions: For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked A, B,.C, and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a pencil.
Olympic Games are held every four years at a different site, in which athletes 21 different nations compete against each other in a 22 of sports. There are two types of Olympics, the Summer Olympics and the winter Olympics.
In order to 23 the Olympics, a city must submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committee (IOC). After all proposals have been 24 , the IOC votes. If no city is successful in gaining a majority in the first vote, the city with the fewest votes is eliminated, and voting continues, with 25 rounds, until a majority winner is determined. Typically the Games are awarded several years in advance, 26 the winning city time to prepare for the Games. In selecting the 27 of the Olympic Games, the IOC considers a number of factors, chief among them which city has, or promises to build, the best facilities, and which organizing committee seems most likely to 28 the Games effectively.
The IOC also 29 which parts of the world have not yet hosted the Games. 30 ,
Tokyo, Japan, the host of the 1964 Summer Games, and Mexico City, Mexico, the host of the 1968 Summer Games, were chosen 31 to popularize the Olympic movement in Asia and in Latin America.
32 the growing importance of television worldwide, the IOC in recent years has also taken into 33 the host city’s time zone. 34 the Games take place in the United States or Canada, for example, American television networks are willing to pay 35 higher amounts for television rights because they can broadcast popular events 36 , in prime viewing hours.
37 the Games have been awarded, it is the responsibility of the local organizing committee to finance them. This is often done with a portion of the Olympic television 38 and with corporate sponsorships, tickets sales, and other smaller revenue sources. In many 39
there is also direct government support.
Although many cities have achieved a financial profit by hosting the Games, the Olympics can be financially 40 . When the revenues from the Games were less than expected, the city was left with large debts.
21. A. in B. for C. of D. from
22. A. lot B. number C. variety D. series
23. A. host B. take C. run D. organize
24. A. supported B. submitted C. substituted D. subordinated
25. A. suggestive B. successful C. successive D. succeeding
26. A. letting B. setting C. permitting D. allowing
27. A. site B. spot C. location D. place
28. A. state B. stage C. start D. sponsor
29. A. thinks B. reckons C. considers D. calculates
30. A. For instance B. As a result C. In brief D. On the whole
31. A. in time B. in part C. in case D. in common
32. A. Since B. Because C. As for D. Because of
33. A. amount B. account C. accord D. acclaim
34. A. However B. Whatever C. Whenever D. Wherever
35. A. greatly B. handsomely C. meaningfully D. significantly
36. A. live B. living C. alive D. lively
37. A. Until B. Unless C. Whether D. Once
38. A. incomes B. interests C. revenues D. returns
39. A. cases B. conditions C. chances D. circumstances
40. A. safe B. risky C. tempting D. feasible
Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension ( 40 points )
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them are four choices marked A, B,C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and blacked the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a pencil.
Questions 41 to 45 are based on the following passage:
Last weekend Kyle MacDonald in Montreal threw a party to celebrate the fact that he got his new home in exchange for a red paper clip. Starting a year ago, MacDonald bartered the clip for increasingly valuable stuff, including a camp stove and free rent in a Phoenix flat. Having announced his aim (the house) in advance, MacDonald likely got a boost from techies eager to see the Internet pass this daring test of its networking power. “My whole motto (座右銘) was ‘Start small, think big, and have fun’, ” says MacDonald, 26, “I really kept my effort on the creative side rather than the business side.”
Yet as odd as the MacDonald exchange was, barter is now big business on the Net. This year more than 400,000 companies worldwide will exchange some $10 billion worth of goods and services on a growing number of barter sites. These Web sites allow companies to trade products for a virtual currency, which they can use to buy goods from other members. In Iceland, earning virtual money that it uses to buy machinery and pay part of employee salaries. The Troc - Services exchange in France offers more than 4,600 services, from math lessons to ironing.
This is not a primitive barter system. By creating currencies, the Internet removes a major barrier---what Bob Meyer, publisher of Barter News, calls “the double coincidence of wants.” That is, two parties once not only had to find each other, but also an exchange of goods that both desired. Now, they can price the deal in virtual currency.
Barter also helps firms make use of idle capacity. For example, advertising is “hugely bartered” because many media, particularly on the Web, can supply new ad space at little cost. Moreover, Internet ads don’t register in industry-growth statistics, because many exchanges are arranged outside the formal exchanges.
Like eBay, most barter sites allow members to “grade” trading partners for honesty, quality and so on. Barter exchanges can allow firms in countries with hyperinflation or nontradable currencies to enter global trades. Next year, a nonprofit exchange called Quick Lift Two (QL2) plans to open in Nairobi, offering barter deals to 38,000 Kenyan farmers in remote areas. Two small planes will deliver the goods. QL2 director Gacii Waciuma says the farmers are excited to be “liberated from corrupt middlemen.” For them, barter evokes a bright future, not a precapitalist past.
41. The word “techies” (Line 4, Para.1) probably refers to those who are .
A. afraid of technology
B. skilled in technology
C. ignorant of technology
D. incompetent in technology
42. Many people may have deliberately helped Kyle because they .
A. were impressed by his creativity
B. were eager to identify with his motto
C. liked his goal announced in advance
D. hoped to prove the power of the Internet
43. The Internet barter system relies heavily on .
A. the size of barter sites
B. the use of virtual currency
C. the quality of goods or services
D. the location of trading companies
44. It is implied that Internet advertisement can help .
A. companies make more profit
B. companies do formal exchanges
C. media register in statistics
D. media grade barter sites
45. Which of the following is true of QL2 according to the author?
A. It is criticized for doing business in a primitive way.
B. It aims to deal with hyperinflation in some countries.
C. It helps get rid of middlemen in trade and exchange.
D. It is intended to evaluate the performance of trading partners.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage:
The lives of very few Newark residents are untouched by violence: New Jersey’s biggest city has seen it all. Yet the murder of three young people, who were forced to kneel before being shot survived, was stabbed and shot in the face. The four victims were by all accounts good kids, all enrolled in college, all with a future. But the cruel murder, it seems, has at last forced Newarkers to say they have had enough.
Grassroots organizations, like ‘Stop Shooting’, have been flooded with offers of help and support since the killings. Yusef Ismail, its co-founder, says the group has been going door-to-door asking people to sign a pledge of non-violence. They hope to get 50,000 to promise to “’stop shooting’, ‘start thinking’, and ‘keep living’.” The Newark Community Foundation, which was launched last month, announced on August 14th that it will help pay for Community Eye, a surveillance (監視) system tailored towards gun crime.
Cory Booker, who became mayor 13 months ago with a mission to revitalize the city, believes the surveillance program will be the largest camera and audio network in any American city. More than 30 cameras were installed earlier this summer and a future 50 will be installed soon in a seven-square-mile area where 80% of the city’s recent shootings have occurred. And more cameras are planned.
When a gunshot is detected, the surveillance camera zooms in on that spot. Similar technology in Chicago has increased arrests and decreased shootings. Mr. Booker plans to announce a comprehensive gun strategy later this week.
Mr. Booker, as well as church and others, believes (or hopes) that after the murder the city will no longer stand by in coldness. For generations, Newark has been paralyzed by poverty---almost one in three people lives below the poverty line---and growing indifference to crime.
Some are skeptical. Steve Malanga of the conservative Manhattan Institute notes that Newark has deep social problems: over 60% of children are in homes without fathers. The school system, taken over by the state in 1995, is a mess. But there is also some cause for hope. Since Mr. Booker was elected, there has been a rise in investment and re-zoning for development. Only around 7% of nearby Newark airport workers used to come from Newark; now, a years later, the figure is 30%. Mr. Booker has launched a New York-style war on crime. So far this year, crime has fallen 11% and shootings are down 30% (though the murder rate looks likely to match last year’s high).
46. What happened in Newark, New Jersey on August 4th?
A. The Newark residents witnessed a murder.
B. Four young people were killed in a school playground.
C. The new major of Newark took office.
D. Four college students fell victim to violence.
47. Judging from the context, the “Community Eye” (Line 5, Para.2) is .
A. a watching system for gun crime
B. a neighborhood protection organization
C. an unprofitable community business
D. a grassroots organization
48. We learn from the passage that Newark has all the following problem EXCEPT .
49. Mayor Booker’s efforts against crime seem to be .
50. The best title for the passage may be .
A. ‘Stop shooting’, ‘Start thinking’, and ‘Keep living’
B. Efforts to Fight against Gun Crimes
C. A Mission to Revitalize the City
D. Violent Murders in Newark
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage:
According to a recent survey on money and relationships, 36 percent of people are keeping a bank account from their partner. While this financial unfaithfulness may appear as distrust in a relationship, in truth it may just be a form of financial protection.
With almost half of all marriages ending in divorce, men and women are realizing they need to be financially savvy, regardless of whether they are in a relationship.
The financial hardship on individuals after a divorce can be extremely difficult, even more so when children are involved. The lack of permanency in relationships, jobs and family life may be the cause of a growing trend to keep a secret bank account hidden from a partner; in other words, an “escape fund”.
Margaret’s story is far from unique. She is a representative of a growing number of women in long-term relationships who are becoming protective of their own earnings.
Every month on pay day, she banks hundreds of dollars into a savings account she keeps from her husband. She has been doing this throughout their six-years marriage and has built a nest egg worth an incredible $100,000 on top of her pension.
Margaret says if her husband found out about her secret savings he’d hurt and would interrupt this as a sign she wasn’t sure of the marriage. “He’d think it was my escape fund so that financially I could afford to get out of the relationship if it went wrong. I know you should approach marriage as being forever and I hope ours is, but you can never be sure.”
Like many of her fellow secret savers, Margaret was stung in a former relationship and has since been very guarded about her own money.
Coming clean to your partner about being a secret saver may not be all that bad. Take Colleen, for example, who had been saving secretly for a few years before she confessed to her partner. “I decided to open a savings account and start building a nest egg of my own. I wanted to prove to myself that I could put money in the bank and leave it there for a rainy day.”
“When John found out about my secret savings, he was a little suspicious of my motives. I reassured him that this was certainly not an escape fund and that I feel very secure in our relationship. I have to admit that it does feel good to have my own money on reserve if ever there are rainy days in the future. It’s sensible to build and protect your protect your personal financial security.”
51. The trend to keep a secret bank account is growing because .
A. “escape fund ” helps one through rainy days
B. days are getting harder and harder
C. women are money sensitive
D. financial conflicts often occur
52. The word “savvy” (Line 2, Para.2) probably means .
53. Which inference can we make about Margaret?
A. She is a unique woman.
B. She was once divorced.
C. She is going to retire.
D. She has many children.
54. The author mentions Colleen’s example to show .
A. any couple can avoid marriage conflicts
B. privacy within marriage should be respected
C. everyone can save a fortune with a happy marriage
D. financial disclosure is not necessarily bad
55. Which of the following best summarizes this passage?
A. Secret Savers
B. Love Is What It’s Worth
C. Banking Honesty
D. Once Bitten, Twice Shy
Questions 56to 60 are based on the following passage:
“The word ‘protection’ is no longer taboo (禁忌語)”. This short sentence, uttered by French President Nicolas Sarkozy late last month, may have launched a new era in economic history. Why? For decades, Western leaders have believed that lowering trade barriers and tariffs was a natural good. Doing so, they reasoned, would lead to greater economic efficiency and productivity, which in turn would improve human welfare. Championing free trade thus became a moral, not just an economic, cause.
These leaders, of course, weren’t acting out of unselfishness. They knew their economics were the most competitive, so they’d profit most from liberalization. And developing countries feared that their economics would be swamped by superior Western productivity. Today, however, the tables have turned-though few acknowledge it. The west continues to preach free trade, but practices it less and less. Asia, meanwhile, continues to plead for special protection but practices more and more free trade.
That’s why Sarkozy’s word were so important: he finally injected some honesty into the trade debate. The truth is that large parts of the West are losing faith in free trade, though few leaders admit it. Some economists are more honest. Paul Krug man is one of the few willing to losers will be in the West. Economists in the developed world used to love quoting Joseph Schumpeter, who said that “creative destruction” was an essential part of capitalist growth. But they always assumed that destruction would happen over there. When Western workers began losing jobs, suddenly their leaders began to lose faith in their principles. Things have yet to reverse completely. But there’s clearly a negative trend in Western theory and practice.
A little hypocrisy (虛偽) is not in itself a serious problem. The real problem is that Western governments continue to insist that they retain control of the key global economic and financial institutions while drifting away from global liberalization. Look at what’s happening at the IMF (International Monetary Fund). The Europeans have demanded that they keep the post of managing director. But all too often, Western officials put their own interests above everyone else’s when they dominate these global institutions.
The time has therefore come for the Asians-who are clearly the new winners in today’s global economy- to provide more intellectual leadership in supporting free trade, Sadly, they have yet to do so. Unless Asians speak out, however, there’s a real danger that Adam Smith’s principles, which have brought so much good to the world, could gradually die. And that would leave all of us worse off, in one way or another.
56. It can be inferred that “protection” (Line1, Para.1) means .
A. improving economic efficiency
B. ending the free-trade practice
C. lowering moral standard
D. raising trade tariffs
57. The Western leaders preach free trade because .
A. it is beneficial to their economics
B. it is supported by developing countries
C. it makes them keep faith in their principles
D. it is advocated by Joseph Schumpeter and Adam Smith
58. By “the tables have turned” (Line 3-4, Para.2) the author implies that .
A. the Western leaders have turned self-centered
B. the Asian leaders have become advocates of free trade
C. the developed economics have turned less competitive
D. the developing economics have become more independent
59. The Western economists used to like the idea of “creative destruction” because it .
A. set a long-term rather than short-term goal
B. was an essential part of capitalist development
C. entailed a positive rather than negative mentality
D. was meant to be the destruction of developing economics
60. The author uses “IMF” as an example to illustrate the point that .
A. European leaders are reluctant to admit they are hypocritical
B. there is an inconsistency between Western theory and practice
C. global institutions are not being led by true globalization advocates
D. European countries’ interests are being ignored by economic leaders
Section Ⅳ Translation (20 points)
Directions: in this section there is a paragraph in English. Translate it into Chinese and write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
The term “business model “first came into widespread use with the invention of the personal computer and the spreadsheet(空白表格程序)。Before the spreadsheet, business planning usually meant producing a single forecast. At best, you did a little sensitivity analysis around the projection. The spreadsheet ushered in a much more analytic approach to planning because every major line item could be pulled apart, its components and subcomponents analyzed and tested. You could ask what-if questions about the critical assumptions on which your business depended—for example, what if customers are more price-sensitive than we thought?—and with a few keystrokes, you could see how any change would play out on every aspect of the whole. In other words, you could model the behavior of a business. Before the computer changed the nature of business planning, most successful business models were created more by accident than by elaborate design. By enabling companies to tie their marketplace insights much more tightly to the resulting economics, spreadsheet made it possible to model business before they were launched.
Section ⅤWriting (20 points)
Directions: in this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following information. Make comments and express your own opinion. You should write at least 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.